Term Grouping for Variational Quantum Eigensolver

Pranab Sen
Friday, 29 Nov 2019, 11:00 to 12:30
A-201 (STCS Seminar Room)
Abstract:Variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) is a promising algorithm suitable for near-term quantum machines. VQE aims to approximate the lowest eigenvalue of an exponentially sized matrix in polynomial time. It minimizes quantum resource requirements both by co-processing with a classical processor and by structuring computation into many subproblems. Each quantum subproblem involves a separate state preparation terminated by the measurement of one Pauli string. However, the number of such Pauli strings scales as N^4 for typical problems of interest--a daunting growth rate that poses a serious limitation for emerging applications such as quantum computational chemistry. We introduce a systematic technique for minimizing requisite state preparations by exploiting the simultaneous measurability of partitions of commuting Pauli strings. Our work encompasses algorithms for efficiently approximating a MIN-COMMUTING-PARTITION, as well as a synthesis tool for compiling simultaneous measurement circuits. For representative problems, we achieve 8-30x reductions in state preparations, with minimal overhead in measurement circuit cost. Moreover, we prove that simultaneous measurement reduces the O(N^4) scaling cost to O(N^3). We demonstrate experimental validation of our techniques by estimating the ground state energy of deuteron on an IBM Q 20-qubit machine. We also investigate the underlying statistics of simultaneous measurement and devise an adaptive strategy for mitigating harmful covariance terms. We confirm these empirical observations by studying the MIN-COMMUTING-PARTITION problem at the level of the fermionic Hamiltonian and its encoding into qubits. Moreover, we provide a fast, pre-computable procedure for creating linearly-sized commuting partitions by solving a round-robin scheduling prob