The Quantum Substate Theorem due to Jain, Radhakrishnan, and (2002) gives us a powerful operational interpretation of relative entropy, in fact, of the observational divergence of two quantum states, a quantity that is related to their relative entropy. Informally, the theorem states that if the observational divergence between two quantum states rho, sigma is small, then there is a quantum state rho' close to rho in trace distance, such that rho' when scaled down by a small factor becomes a substate of sigma. We present new proofs of this theorem. The resulting statement is optimal up to a constant factor in its dependence on observational divergence. In addition, the proofs are both conceptually simpler and significantly shorter than the earlier proof (this is joint work with Rahul Jain, National University of Singapore).