Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radios

Rahul Vaze
Friday, 11 Jan 2013, 11:00 to 12:00
A-212 (STCS Seminar Room)
Inefficient use of radio spectrum is becoming a serious problem as more and more wireless systems are being developed to operate in crowded spectrum bands. Cognitive radio offers a novel solution to overcome the underutilization problem by allowing secondary usage of the spectrum resources along with high reliable communication. Spectrum sensing is a key enabler for cognitive radios. It identifies idle spectrum and provides awareness regarding the radio environment which are essential for the efficient secondary use of the spectrum and coexistence of different wireless systems. The focus of this thesis is on the local and cooperative spectrum sensing algorithms. Local sensing algorithms are proposed for detecting orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based primary user (PU) transmissions using their autocorrelation property. The proposed autocorrelation detectors are simple and computationally efficient. Later, the algorithms are extended to the case of cooperative sensing where multiple secondary users (SUs) collaborate to detect a PU transmission. For cooperation, each SU sends a local decision statistic such as log-likelihood ratio (LLR) to the fusion center (FC) which makes a final decision. Cooperative sensing algorithms are also proposed using sequential and censoring methods. Sequential detection minimizes the average detection time while censoring scheme improves the energy efficiency. The performances of the proposed algorithms are studied through rigorous theoretical analyses and extensive simulations. The distributions of the decision statistics at the SU and the test statistic at the FC are established conditioned on either hypothesis. Later, the effects of quantization and reporting channel errors are considered. Main aim in studying the effects of quantization and channel errors on the cooperative sensing is to provide a framework for the designers to choose the operating values of the number of quantization bits and the target bit error probability (BEP) for the reporting channel such that the performance loss caused by these non-idealities is negligible. Later a performance limitation in the form of BEP wall is established for the cooperative sensing schemes in the presence of reporting channel errors. The BEP wall phenomenon is important as it provides the feasible values for the reporting channel BEP used for designing communication schemes between the SUs and the FC.